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The Role of Oxidative Stress in Diabetes Disease and the Ameliorative Effect of Sorghum Polyphenols

Updated: Nov 21, 2023


Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels due to either insufficient insulin production (Type 1 diabetes) or ineffective insulin utilization (Type 2 diabetes). While the exact causes of diabetes are multifactorial, oxidative stress has emerged as a significant contributor to its development and progression. In recent years, researchers have turned their attention to natural compounds, such as sorghum polyphenols, for their potential ameliorative effects on oxidative stress and diabetes.


Understanding Oxidative Stress in Diabetes:

Oxidative stress occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the body's ability to neutralize them with antioxidants. In diabetes, several factors contribute to increased oxidative stress, including hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms. This imbalance leads to cellular damage, inflammation, and ultimately, the development of diabetes-related complications.


Sorghum Polyphenols as Antioxidants:

Sorghum, a cereal grain widely consumed in many parts of the world, contains a diverse range of polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. These compounds have been extensively studied for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Sorghum polyphenols have shown promising results in scavenging ROS, reducing oxidative stress, and protecting against cellular damage.


Ameliorative Effects of Sorghum Polyphenols in Diabetes:

1. Improved Glycemic Control: Studies have demonstrated that sorghum polyphenols can enhance insulin sensitivity and improve glucose metabolism. They stimulate glucose uptake in cells, inhibit carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, and regulate insulin signaling pathways, thereby aiding in glycemic control.


2. Antioxidant Defense: Sorghum polyphenols act as potent antioxidants by neutralizing ROS and inhibiting oxidative damage. They enhance the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, reducing oxidative stress in diabetic individuals.


3. Anti-inflammatory Properties: Chronic inflammation is closely associated with diabetes and its complications. Sorghum polyphenols possess anti-inflammatory properties that can suppress pro-inflammatory markers and cytokines, thus alleviating inflammation in diabetic patients.


4. Cardiovascular Protection: Diabetes significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Sorghum polyphenols have been shown to improve lipid profiles, reduce blood pressure, and prevent the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, thereby providing cardiovascular protection in diabetic individuals.



Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development and progression of diabetes. The use of natural compounds, such as sorghum polyphenols, holds great promise in mitigating oxidative stress and its associated complications in diabetes. Sorghum polyphenols exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective properties, making them a potential therapeutic option for managing diabetes. Further research and clinical trials are needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and establish their efficacy in clinical settings.


 references :

1. Ganesan, K., Xu, B. (2017). Polyphenol-Rich Sorghum brans inhibit key markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance in vitro. Food Chemistry, 221, 688-697. [Link](


2. Awika, J.M., Rooney, L.W. (2004). Sorghum phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health. Phytochemistry, 65(9), 1199-1221. [Link](


3. Awika, J.M., Rose, D.J., Simsek, S. (2018). Sorghum and millet phenols and antioxidants. Journal of Cereal Science, 84, 239-246. [Link](


4. Obiro, W.C., Zhang, T., Jiang, B. (2019). Sorghum grain phenolic compounds: antioxidant capacity, their contents, and implications on human health. Journal of Food Science, 84(10), 2776-2787. [Link](



Please note that while these references provide valuable information, it's always a good practice to consult multiple sources and consult with healthcare professionals for personalized advice and recommendations.

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